In order to make the jewel suitable for use in the watch movement, a small hole is carefully shaped and created. The mark was never intended to show who made an item; there was no requirement for a sponsor to be involved in any way in the manufacture of an item submitted for hallmarking and there has never been a requirement for the assay offices to know who actually made an item. How to Identify Old Bulova Watches. French watches were sometimes wound through a hole in the dial and the hands set by turning them with a key on a square boss of the minute hand or centre arbor, so there was no need for the owner to access the back of the movement, so their cases had a single back or bottom fixed to the middle part of the case. By the end of the 18th century, watches were starting to become more common and cheaper designs were being produced for sailors.
These designs were quite heavy and cumbersome.
Identifying Pocket Watches and Pocket Watch Case Types
A male head with a helmet was used for gold zloto and a female head covered with a scarf was used for silver srebro. Since watches with 15 jewels and less are often not marked as to the jewel count, extreme caution must be exercised when purchasing movements which appear to be 15 jewels. Do not use the case number. These types of watches had a cover that could be flipped open when you wanted to view the time. It is a quartz and has a cupid with bow and arrow and dog on the face!